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Dogs are human friends. We are all too familiar with dogs, but there are many interesting habits and characteristics of dogs that we do not know. Today's long article introduces 13 interesting things about dogs. Through this article, I hope you can better understand our human friend-dog.
Usually, a dog has a well-developed intelligence, and the intelligence of an adult dog is equivalent to that of a 5-6-year-old child. It has a very keen observation of the surrounding environment. In the long-term relationship with humans, it has learned a lot, understands people's straightforward language, expressions, and gestures. After training, it can complete various tasks according to the instructions and gestures of the owner.
So, what are dog characteristics? please check below:
The ancestor of the dog is the wolf. If we continue to trace it back, we should start with the malt beast 50 million years ago. The malt is a small, long-tailed, small carnivore that is good at running. After about 10 million years of evolution, it has gradually differentiated into bears, finger dogs, and mimic dogs. About 25 million years ago, finger dogs and pseudo finger dogs continued to evolve into new beast wolves. Three million years ago, it gradually divided into wolves and foxes.
About 14,000 years ago, people began to take captured little wolf pups’ home for domestication. They have been with humans for a long time and gradually evolved into humans' most loyal friends-dogs.
As a descendant of wolves, dogs still retain many characteristics of wolves. For example, wolves use their urine and scent glands on their paws to delimit their sphere of influence. Dogs like to do this too; wolves are often used to call companions. Sometimes a dog who is locked up alone will howl like a wolf because loneliness evokes its most primitive instinct. Besides, the dog's habits of burying food and obeying the leader all show that it has a deep relationship with the wolf.
Dogs have very developed olfactory organs, and their sensitivity to smell is more than 40 times higher than that of humans. According to measurements, there are 5 million human olfactory cells, while dogs have 220 million, capable of distinguishing about 20,000 kinds of odors. The dog's sense of smell occupies an essential position in its life. It recognizes its owner, detects the location, identifies the same gender, recognizes mother and child, and finds food and prey are all done through smell.
Humans take advantage of the sensitive smell of dogs to train working dogs, police dogs, shepherd dogs, hunting dogs, etc., to participate in search and rescue work and help find victims buried deep in snow, deserts, and earthquakes.
The hearing sense of a dog is 16 times that of a human, and it can distinguish high-frequency and extremely low-decibel sounds. When sleeping, its ears are close to the ground, and it is alert to listen to sounds within 4 kilometers in diameter. The standing-eared dog has better hearing than the lop-eared dog, for sensitive.
Dogs have a strong ability to distinguish sound sources. When they hear distant sounds, they will turn their ears and eyes to the sound source at the same time, which is its physiological function.
For the owner's password and simple language, the dog builds a conditioned reflex based on the change in pitch. It can hear very light passwords. Too high a voice is a stimulus to it, making it feel painful and frightened as for avoiding or producing rebellious behavior.
The puppies at the age of 10 days did not respond to the sound. After 2 to 3 weeks, they could gradually hear the voice and let out a croaking cry.
Dogs have poor eyesight, but they have a wide field of vision and can "see six directions and hear all directions." Its ability to perceive an object depends on the state of the object. It can see a stationary object within 50 meters, but it can feel 825 meters for a moving target. A dog is color-blind. In his eyes, the world is like a black-and-white TV. A guide dog can distinguish traffic lights based on the brightness of the two-color lights; its dark vision is more sensitive and weak. Objects can also be seen clearly in the light of the same, which is the characteristic of nocturnal animals.
Digging pits to collect food is a tradition left by the ancestors of dogs-wolves. The wolf lives by hunting small animals. It has little chance of catching prey. Once there is a harvest, it will eat a big meal, and then use its front paws to scratch one. Pit, bury the remaining delicacy. Nowadays, although the pet dog living in the human family has no worries about food and clothing, the information about collecting food has been stored in its brain. After the food is hidden, it will not bother, let it rot, or be otherwise. The dog digs out to enjoy.
It also has a robust possessive desire for toys and other objects. Sometimes things that we humans think are useless, such as stones and branches, will go into their nests and bite and play.
Barking is a dog's instinct, and every barking expresses a different meaning. You only need to pay attention to the sound it makes and combine it with its expressions and actions; you can guess the emotion it wants to express.
The barks of small dogs are relatively high and sharp, and they like to bark; the barks of large dogs are thick and low and generally do not bark. It usually barks only within its snobbery. This call is an alarm and a demonstration.
When a dog expresses emotions, in addition to barking, there are physical movements:
1. Its happy gesture is like this: It keeps wagging its tail, its eyes are gentle, and its body is twisting gracefully. It steps on the ground with its front feet, or jumps around its owner, making a sweet nasal sound; sometimes it will lie down, put its head on its front legs, and half of its eyes to make a sigh. lowered his tail, but it was not clamped, it was also a sign of happiness.
A dog will act like a baby to its owner when he is happy. The most typical posture is that the front legs are stretched forward, the arms are raised, the mouth is grinning backward, and the ears are tilted back. Then put the forefoot on the owner's knee or turn around and lean the buttocks on the owner. This position allows the owner to touch his back.
2. When you are sad and lonely, your eyes are wet, your head is lowered, and you are listless, looking pitifully at your master, or hiding in a corner to express your grief in silence.
3. When angry, the pupils open and turn into terrible eyes. If it is erected with fur, its front body is protruding, and its teeth are grinning, it will attack.
4. When your dog challenges another dog, it will hold up its head, stare at the front, its body will be tensed, its tail will stand up, and the hair on its neck will stand up.
If the challenged dog is also very aggressive, then it will show the same posture.
if the challenged dog is more cowardly, you will see a completely different position: lower the head and step back, sometimes sitting on the ground, the ears fall backward; the tail is hidden under the body. To show its obedience, it will bow its back and look pitiful.
Dogs occupy territory by urinating and leaving behind the smell. They can also secrete sweat through the sweat glands between their toes, and then use their hind feet to scratch and scratch the ground.
Its territory is generally limited to the owner's home and a small area at the door. If it leaves its territory, it will become cautious. Dogs also have the characteristics of protecting their land. They have a strong possessive desire for the things in the region, including the owner's property. Because of this, it can protect the owner's property. Sometimes, things that are of no use to humans, such as stones and branches, are also collected and hidden in their own dens.
Male dogs are very aggressive. When going for a walk, they often update their urine traces to expand the boundaries, but when they encounter more fierce dogs invading and occupying the land, they will pick up their tails and retract into their nests.
The female dog’s sense of territoriality is not so strong, but it leaves urine trails everywhere when in heat to attract the male dog.
If it moves to a new place, it will take ten days to establish a new territory. During this period, some dogs may bite people because of their territorial awareness. The owner must strictly control them to avoid chasing or hurting people.
The life span of a dog is 10-20 years, and the longest life span is 30 years. The length of its life span has a lot to do with nutritional status.
Distinguishing the age of dogs is different from that of humans. The age of humans is calculated in units of "years," while the age of dogs is distinguished in groups of "day-age," "month age," and "years."
From birth to 45 days of age before weaning, they are called puppies; after weaning to 6 months of age, they are puppies; they are adult dogs over six months of age. One year old is equivalent to 16 years old for humans, and three years old is equal to 30 years old for humans. Starting from 4 years old, every one year old is equivalent to 5 years of human growth.
The dog's ancestors were mainly carnivorous, so the teeth are developed, and the growth rate is fast. According to the growth of the teeth, its age can be judged.
Deciduous teeth begin to grow 19 days after birth, and permanent teeth will be replaced around three months of age.
At the age of 1 year, the teeth are full, and the incisors are prominent and pointed.
At the age of 2 years, the tip of the mandibular incisor was partially flattened.
At three years old, the tip of the maxillary incisor was partially flattened.
4 to 5 years old, the upper and lower front teeth have worn slopes, and the color is yellow.
6-8 years old, only the root of the incisor is left, which is yellowish-brown.
Incomplete teeth over ten years old.
Judging from the posture and facial expressions, the young dog has a light and energetic attitude, has a bright eye, and is willing to be close to people:
Steady action at the age of 3 to 5.
Elderly dogs over ten years old have slow movements, curved backs, and grayish-white hair growing from the lips.
A dog is naturally timid and fearful of fire, light, death, and specific sounds. When it hears a violent voice, it first expresses fear, and then escapes to a place it thinks is safe, even when it rains. The thunder and lightning will make it shiver with fright and go under the table with its tail sandwiched; most dogs hate fire, but it does not reach the level of fear. Its performance is not to run away, but to bark carefully around the fire. We can use this feature of dogs to report the fire.
Dogs have a strong sense of fear of death, mainly the smell of after death, which has a strong stimulus to living dogs. Some dogs are also afraid of shoes made of leather, which may be due to the smell of other animals on them.
dogs may also be fearful of phenomena that they cannot understand, such as lifeless animal specimens, sound-producing electric toys, suddenly opened umbrella waiting.
Sometimes a dog who is afraid of its owner will lie. For example, a dog who always flips through the trash is punished by its owner. Later, when he hears the owner's call, it will run in the opposite direction next to the trash can before returning to its owner. This is because it thinks it is smart to show that it is not in the trash can to conceal its wrong behavior.
The dog does not have a fixed sleep time. It sleeps when it has the opportunity. The deepest sleep is between 11 am, and 13 am, and between 2 am, and 3 am. Puppies and elderly dogs need longer sleep. Dogs with insufficient sleep tend to yawn, have no eyesight, and decrease their ability to work.
It likes to lie on the ground when sleeping, with its head resting on its front legs and its mouth hidden between the two front legs to protect its nose. The posture of deep sleep is lying on the side, and the whole body stretched out, but with one ear attached to the ground, it is always alert to unfamiliar sounds. This characteristic makes it possess the ability to guard and housekeeping.
If it is awakened while sleeping, it will show dissatisfaction and even bark at the owner who awakened it.
The newborn puppies are just like human babies. Their mouth, nose, ears, and footpads are all ruddy. They cry when they are hungry and sleep most of the time.
In the first week after birth, its eyes have not been opened yet. It can only crawl in a small area without getting too far away from the nest when receiving information from the outside world based on sense and smell. The weight can be doubled; if tail docking or dewclaw removal is needed, it should be done on the 4th to 7th day.
At the end of the second week, its eyes and ears slowly opened, but it still could not see things clearly and respond to the ambient temperature. At this time, the puppies began to have social activities-lick each other.
In the third week, they began to learn to walk crookedly and reacted to shaking and bright things. Child dogs began to move around without the mother dog. Male dogs will brutally hit their children with their noses to let them understand the cruelty of the outside world, and when the puppies return to the nest, the rough game will stop. This is an essential way of education in the dog group.
In the 4th week, the mother dog does not care about her baby anymore. The baby dog is weaned gradually. All her feelings are fully formed during this period, and she begins to know and understand the outside world. This period of contact with humans is critical. People develop fear and aggressive behavior.
In the 5th to 6th week, you should go to the pet hospital to check the stool, deworming, and inject vaccinations to avoid infection with canine plague and other viral diseases. Life education for it can also begin, such as defecation and name-calling training, but it cannot be demanded too high, and it will not complete training in complex subjects.
Playing is the best way for puppies to learn. They determine the hierarchy in the process of playing. During this period, you should establish your master's authority. Otherwise, it will be difficult to discipline in the future.
Before the age of 5 to 6 months of sexual maturity, you can carry out simple training, such as coming, sitting, accompanying, etc., as the owner, spend more time playing and walking with the dog, and promote its brain development and learning ability.